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Domain Glossary

If you're just getting to know about world of domain registration or just want to increase your knowledge, view some of the more commonly used terms and definitions below.

Domain

A domain name is a text name (e.g. Domainmonster.com) which provides a more memorable name to stand in for a numeric IP address. IP addresses identify computers which are part of the computer network known as the Internet. Domain names must be unique. A web user can access a website by typing its domain name into the address bar of their web browser.

A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is a domain name which has a dot after the top-level domain (TLD) to indicate the empty root domain. An example of a fully qualified domain name would be Domainmonster.com. (note the dot at the end). Name servers are often shown as fully qualified domain names, but you need not include the final dot when you use Domainmonster.com services.


Domain Registration

Domain registration is the process of registering a domain name to an individual, company or organisation via a domain registrar service such as Domainmonster.com.

Depending on the domain extension top-level domain), domains may be registered for different numbers of years at the same time. When you register a domain, you are entitled to use it for the period of registration, and will have control of where the domain "resolves" (i.e. the IP address to which it points).

The Domainmonster.com domain registration service offers great discounts for bulk purchases of domain names. The more domains you register, the cheaper they will be! See our price list for more details.


Domain Back Order

Domain names are technically not owned; they are leased for a number of years to domain registrants. If the registrants fail to renew their domain names, they are deleted from the registry after the period of registration and a grace period for re-registration have expired. This means that you may be able to take the opportunity to register these pre-owned domains yourself!

The Domainmonster.com back order service allows you to place a back order on a domain name, meaning that if the current owner fails to renew their registration, we will snap it up for you the moment it becomes available. Our systems continually poll soon-to-expire domain names for our customers, so that we can grab them for you before anyone else does. It's free to set up a domain back order; you will only be charged the back order fee if your back ordered domain is successfully registered. See our back order page for more information.


Generic Top-Level Domains

A generic top-level domain (gTLD) is a domain name extension which is not associated with a particular region or country. .com and .net are examples of gTLDs. The list below shows some of the most popular gTLDs and their official operators.


UK Domains

The .uk TLD is the country-code top-level domain for the United Kingdom. You are not allowed to register a domain name directly under the .uk domain name (such as Domainmonster.uk); instead, you must register under one of the .uk second-level domains, such as .co.uk, org.uk, .me.uk and .net.uk.

There are also some .uk second-level domains, the registration of which is not open to the general public. For example, only UK government bodies may register .gov.uk addresses, and only UK academic organisations may register .ac.uk domains.

Domainmonster.com is a member of Nominet UK. This means that we are able to take part in discussions and decision-making around how Nominet UK administrates the .uk TLD. For more information about the .uk registry, see Nominet UK's website.

  • .co.uk
  • .me.uk
  • .org.uk
  • .net.uk

TLD

A TLD (top-level domain) is a domain extension - the part of a domain name which appears after the last dot. For example, the TLD for Domainmonster.com is .com. The domain name system (DNS) is organised in a hierarchy going from right to left, whereby the highest level is the root (the empty domain which technically comes after the top-level domain), followed by the top-level domain, and then by subsequent domains.


.co.uk

.co.uk is one example of a second-level domain under the .uk top-level domain. It is the most popular .uk second-level domain and is used for the vast majority of commercial and personal UK websites. .co.uk was one of the first second-level .uk domains to be issued by the UK Naming Committee, whose duties have now been taken over by the .uk registry, Nominet UK.


.org.uk

.org.uk is one example of a second-level domain under the .uk top-level domain. It is intended for use by non-profit and non-commercial organisations, but this usage is not enforced: anyone can register a .org.uk domain name.


.me.uk

.me.uk is part of the .uk Domain Name System. It is the only second level domain in the UK system to have been added since 1996 when Nominet UK was formed to control the .uk Top Level Domain. It is intended for individuals but there is no actual restriction that only individuals use .me.uk.


.com

.com is a generic top-level domain (gTLD), and is one of the original TLDs established in 1985. .com is by far the most popular generic top-level domain (gTLD). People tend to assume that a domain name will end in .com, because of the generic nature and ubiquity of the TLD. The top-level domain was originally intended for use by commercial organisations, but the domain has since come to be used for all kinds of websites. The .com registry database is currently operated by VeriSign.


.net

.net is a generic top-level domain (gTLD), and is one of the original TLDs established in 1985. The TLD was initially intended for use by internet service providers (ISPs) and other network-orientated entities, but as there are no formal restrictions on who may register .net domain name, it has become popular for all kinds of websites, and is sometimes treated as a secondary version of com. The .net registry database is currently operated by VeriSign.


.org

.org is a generic top-level domain (gTLD), and is one of the original TLDs established in 1985. The .org TLD is short for organisation, and the TLD is officially intended for use by non-profit and non-commercial groups, although there are no formal restrictions on who may register a .org domain name. The domains do not tend to be used for commercial entities, however, and are popular among political parties, charities, educational institutions, and open source software websites, among others. The registry database for .org is the Public Interest Registry (operated by Afilias).


.biz

.biz is a generic top-level domain (gTLD) which was approved by ICANN along with several other new TLDs in 2001, to relieve some of the demand for .com domain names. .biz registrants must be bona fide businesses (cybersquatting, purchasing solely for resale, and reasons for purchase other than for business purposes are not allowed), but in practice, there are no restrictions on who may register a .biz domain name, and no formal mechanisms for checking up on registrants are in place. The registry database for .biz is NeuLevel.


.info

.info is a generic top-level domain (gTLD) which was approved by ICANN along with several other new TLDs in 2001, to relieve some of the demand for .com domain names. It has been the most popular of the new TLDs, with over 4 million .info domains having been registered between 2001 and 2007. The registry database for .info is Afilias.


.eu

.eu is the country-code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union. Registration of .eu domain names domain names is restricted to individuals who live in the EU, and companies or organisations who trade or operate in the EU. The .eu TLD was launched in 2005, and was initially only offered to government bodies, and then to companies with trademarks. Finally, the domain names were offered to other registrants on a first-come, first-served basis. The TLD registry database is administrated by EURid.


.mobi

.mobi is a sponsored top-level domain (sTLD) approved by ICANN in 2006, whose use is restricted to websites which are designed specifically for viewing on mobile devices such as PDAs, palmtops and mobile phones. The domain is administrated by a commercial body called dotMobi, which has released guides and best practices for producing .mobi websites which can easily be viewed on mobile devices.


.ac.uk

.ac.uk is a second-level domain under the .uk top-level domain. The domain is reserved for academic organisations, and there are several mandatory criteria which are required for eligibility to register a .ac.uk domain name. You can read more about these criteria at JANET.


.gov.uk

.gov.uk is a second-level domain under the .uk top-level domain, and can only be used by UK government organisations. The Cabinet Office e-Government Unit (eGU) is responsible for the policy governing the gov.uk domain, and for its rules and guidelines. UKERNA administers the gov.uk domain on behalf of eGU, in providing the name submission, approval and registration systems for the domain. More information about the registration criteria for .gov.uk domain names can be found on the Cabinet Office website.


Registries

Registries are organisations designated by ICANN to manage the distribution of domain names within a particular top-level domain (TLD).


Registrar

A registrar is a company or organisation which is able to assign domain names using certain top-level domains (TLDs) to applicants. Although in many cases it is possible to approach the registry for a particular top-level domain when you wish to register a domain name, it is usually cheaper and quicker to register your domains through a domain name registrar.


Nominet

Nominet UK is the not-for-profit organisation dedicated to managing the .uk domain registry database. Domainmonster.com is a member of Nominet UK, meaning that we are able to contribute to discussion and decision-making about how Nominet UK manages the registry, and how .uk domain names are administered.


ICANN

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the not-for-profit organisation which was formed to assume responsibility for IP address allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system (DNS) management, and root server system (RNS) management functions, which were previously performed under US Government contract by IANA and other entities. For more information about ICANN, please visit the ICANN website.


EURid

EURid is the not-for-profit organisation responsible for the registry database of the .eu top-level domain (TLD). EURid was established in Belgium, and was selected by the European Commission to operate the .eu TLD. EURid was established in a partnership between DNS BE, IIT CNR and NIC SE, operators of the country-code top-level domain registries for Belgium (.be), Italy (.it) and Sweden (.se). More information can be found on the EURid website.


Domain Transfer

A domain transfer is the process of moving a domain name from the control of one registrar to that of another. The details of the transfer process vary depending on the top-level domain (TLD) of the domain name to be transferred. Visit our FAQs for information about how to transfer your domain name.


IPS-TAG

A .uk domain name is transferred by altering the IPS-TAG associated with that domain. IPS-TAG holders include domain registrars and registration services, as well as some hosting companies. Visit our FAQs for more information about IPS-TAGs and .uk domain transfer.


NIC Handle

A NIC handle (Network Information Centre handle) is a sequence of letters or numbers that represents an entry in the databases maintained by Network Information Centres. Changing your domain name's NIC handle does not constitute a transfer of your domain name.


UK Domain Transfer Process

Please visit our FAQs to find out how to transfer your .uk domains.


Global Domain Transfer Process

Please visit our FAQs to find out how to transfer your global domains.


Domain Renewal

Domain renewal is the process of lengthening the period of registration for a domain name. For example, a domain name may initially have been registered for a year, and if the domain is not renewed, it will eventually expire after the year is up and be deleted from the registry database. To prevent this from happening, the domain must be renewed for a further year or more. The current domain registrant has first refusal on renewal of domain names.

Depending on the top-level domain (TLD), domains may be renewed for different periods of time:

  • .uk domains may only be renewed for two (2) years at a time.
  • .eu domains may only be renewed for one (1) year at a time.
  • <.com, .net, .org, .biz, and .mobi domains may be renewed for between one (1) and nine (9) years at a time.

Renewal Preferences

Domainmonster.com provides you with two renewal options for your domain names.

By default, your domain names are set to auto-renew, meaning that we will renew them automatically for you on the day your domains are due to expire. Your account will automatically be debited for the renewal fee on the day of renewal. You will be reminded by email that your domains are soon to be auto-renewed.

If you uncheck the auto-renewal option for your domains in the Renewal Preferences section of your control panel, you will still be reminded by Domainmonster.com that your domain names are soon to expire. You can also choose when you will be reminded about each of your domains' expiry dates in the Renewal Preferences section of your control panel. By default, you will be reminded about renewal three times before your domain expires.


Admin Contact

The admin (administrative) contact is the second contact assigned to any registered domain name. It is used primarily for the domain registrar to contact the owner of the domain for administrative issues such as domain renewal or transfer notification.

It is highly recommended that you keep the administrative contact details for your domain names up-to-date at all times.


Suspended

30 days after a .uk domain name has expired, the domain is suspended, meaning that no changes can be made to the domain's configuration. The suspension period lasts for 60 days.

If the domain is not renewed during this period, it enters a queue pending deletion, and will eventually be deleted from the registry database. Once deleted, the domain will be available for anyone to register on a first-come, first-served basis.

Generic top-level domain names have a similar period called the redemption period.


Redemption

Generic top-level domain names enter a redemption period after they expire. They can enter this period anywhere between 1 and 45 days after their expiry date. The redemption period lasts for 30 days, and during this period, no changes can be made to the domain name configuration. Renewing the domain name during this period can be subject to an inflated renewal fee.

If the domain name is not renewed during the redemption period, it enters a queue pending deletion, and will eventually be deleted from the registry database. Once deleted, the domain will be available for anyone to register on a first-come, first-served basis.

.uk domain names have a similar period called the suspension period.


Pending Deletion

Domain names enter a queue pending deletion after their suspension period (for .uk domains) or redemption period (for global domains) has expired. The status pending deletion will remain for five days, after which the domain name will be deleted from the registry database, and will be available for anyone to register on a first-come, first-served basis.


A-Record

An A-record is an entry in your DNS zone file that maps each domain name (e.g. yourdomain.com) or subdomain (e.g. subdomain.yourdomain.com) to an IP address. In other words, the A-record specifies the IP address to which the user would be sent for each domain or subdomain. This means that you can have different subdomains of your website resolving to different IP addresses, which could be useful if they are hosted on different servers.

  • Example A-record for yourdomain.com:
  • Host Name: www - IP Address: 217.22.89.217
  • This would cause www.yourdomain.com to resolve to the IP address 217.22.89.217.

CNAME

A CNAME (canonical name) record is an entry in your DNS zone file which aliases an FQDN (fully qualified domain name) to another FQDN (such as www.yourdomain.com to yourdomain.com). In other words, the CNAME record specifies another domain name to which a visitor to the first domain would be directed.

  • Example CNAME record:
  • Alias: forum.yourdomain.com - Hostname: www.yourforum.com
  • This would cause visitors to forum.yourdomain.com to be redirected to www.yourforum.com.

MX Record

An MX (mail exchange) record is an entry in your DNS zone file which specifies a mail server to handle a domain's email. This means that when someone sends an email to you@yourdomain.com, the email will be delivered to the mail server specified in the MX record for yourdomain.com.

  • Example MX record for yourdomain.com:
  • MX record: mail.yourdomain.com
  • This would cause emails sent to you@yourdomain.com to be delivered to the mail server mail.yourdomain.com.

SPF Record

An SPF record is used to allow the receiving MTA (message transfer agent) to interrogate the name server of a domain name which is used for sending email. It determines whether the IP address of the sending mail server is authorised to send mail from the sending domain.

Example A-Record: Host Name: www - IP Address: 217.22.89.217


Sub-Domain

A subdomain is a domain which appears to the left of your registered domain name. For example, in the URL faq.domainmonster.com, faq is a subdomain. Subdomains are used to divide websites into different sections. Because A-records can be used to point different subdomains of the same domain name to different IP addresses, subdomains can be useful if different parts of your website are hosted on different servers.


Hostname

A hostname is the name of a machine on a network, such a name server or mail server. Hostnames are used to identify these machines.


Root Server

A root server is a machine that has the software and data needed to locate name servers that contain authoritative data for the top-level domains (TLDs), such as which name servers contain authoritative data for .com, .net and so on. The root servers are also name servers themselves, and contain authoritative data for the very top of the domain name system (DNS) hierarchy.


Root Server

A root server is a machine that has the software and data needed to locate name servers that contain authoritative data for the top-level domains (TLDs), such as which name servers contain authoritative data for .com, .net and so on. The root servers are also name servers themselves, and contain authoritative data for the very top of the domain name system (DNS) hierarchy.


Glue Record

A Glue Record is an A-record which is created when you specify name servers for your domain. If your name servers have a hostname that is a subdomain of the domain name itself, then the Glue Record for that hostname must be included when specifying the name servers.


Cache

A cache is a record of previously resolved queries. Both DNS servers and home computers can build up caches; as requests are made on other servers, so records are added to the cache. Caching has the twin benefits of offering the user faster response time and reduced network traffic. A bad cache can be a liability, however, as it may give the requester out-of-date information.


Control Panel

From the Domainmonster.com members area, you can access the control panel for each of your domain names. From this control panel, you can manage all aspects of your domain configurations, including renewal settings, contact details, web forwarding, custom home pages, and lots more.


Members Area

The members area gives you access to the control panel for each of your domain names registered with Domainmonster.com. You can also update general information, such as your billing details, and purchase POP3 mailboxes, and spam and virus protection.


Web Forwarding

Web Forwarding allows you to redirect visitors to your domain name to a URL of your choice. For example, you could set up Web Forwarding to redirect visitors to www.yourdomain.com to yoursite.freehosting.com.

You can access Web Forwarding options by logging into the Domainmonster.com members area and accessing the control panel for the domain you wish to configure.


Email Forwarding

Email Forwarding allows you to redirect emails sent to your custom domain address to a mailbox of your choice (such as a Hotmail, Google Mail or ISP-issued address). For example, you could set up Email Forwarding to redirect emails sent to you@yourdomain.com to you@hotmail.com.

You can access Email Forwarding options by logging into the Domainmonster.com members area and accessing the control panel for the domain whose email addresses you wish to configure.


POP3 Mailbox

POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) is a protocol or method by which emails are sent and received. Domainmonster.com POP3 mailboxes allow you to send and receive emails either via Webmail or using an email client such as Outlook or Mac Mail. A POP3 mailbox stores all your emails on a remote mail server. These emails are then either viewed via Webmail, or downloaded to your computer when you collect them using an email client.


Web Mail

A Webmail email account is accessed via a web browser. The interface for reading, composing and sending emails appears as a series of web pages. Typically, emails sent to a Webmail inbox are not downloaded to the recipient's computer, but are stored on a mail server and can then be accessed via a web browser.

Emails sent to Domainmonster.com's versatile POP3 mailboxes can be accessed via Webmail or by using an email client. To access your emails via Webmail, type in your domain preceded by the subdomain mail (e.g. mail.yourdomain.com - do not type www. before the URL, as this will not work) and log in to your mailbox using your email username (if your email address is you@yourdomain.com, your username is you) and password.


Mail Servers

Mail servers are computers specifically designed to handle incoming and outgoing emails. They transfer and store mail over corporate networks (via LANs and WANs) and across the Internet.

If you're using a POP3 mailbox on the Domainmonster.com network, your incoming and outgoing mail servers will be the following:


Domain Contacts

Several contacts are assigned to a domain when it is registered. This information is stored in the Whois database. Different details are required depending on which top-level domain (TLD) you are registering:


Name Servers

Name servers (or domain name servers) are the machines that perform the DNS function by administrating the mapping of domain names to IP addresses.


Domain Locking

Domain locking is a free security enhancement which is designed to prevent unauthorised transfers of your domain to another registrar or hosting provider. Your domain is locked to your current registrar and web host until you remove the lock status.

When your domain is locked, you are substantially protected from unauthorised third party transfers of your domain.

Only domains using gTLDs can be locked. These domains are automatically locked when you register them with Domainmonster.com.

.uk and .eu domains cannot be locked.


DNS

DNS stands for Domain Name System, and is a general-purpose replicated data query service. The principal use of DNS is the lookup of host IP addresses based on hostnames.

Domains are part of the DNS; domain names resolve to IP addresses, as their name servers hold records of target IP addresses for those domains.


Whois Opt-Out

Any individual (as opposed to a company or organisation) registering a .uk domain name has the option to opt out of the Whois database after their domain has been registered. Organisations and companies are required to submit their details to the public Whois database.

Any individual registering a .eu domain name is automatically exempt from public Whois entry during the domain registration process. Organisations and companies are required to submit their details to the public Whois database.

For all other top-level domains (TLDs), a public entry in the Whois database is automatic and mandatory, however our Privacy Service can be used to hide your personal information from the Whois database.


Whois Privacy Service

Our Privatemonster.com Privacy Service is FREE with new and existing Domain Names. It can be turned on directly in your control panel and our Privacy Service will be live on your Domain in minutes, keeping your confidential information top secret.


Active Submission

All domains registered with Domainmonster.com are actively submitted to the major search engines (Google, Yahoo and MSN) as part of the registration process. To take advantage of this service, you must be using the Domainmonster.com name servers.


Admin Contact

The admin (administrative) contact is the second contact assigned to any registered domain name. It is used primarily for the domain registrar to contact the owner of the domain for administrative issues such as domain renewal or transfer notification.

It is highly recommended that you keep the administrative contact details for your domain names up-to-date at all times.


Technical Contact

The technical contact is the fourth contact assigned to any registered domain name. The technical contact is usually the webmaster for the website using the domain name.

It is highly recommended that you keep the technical contact details for your domain names up-to-date at all times.


Billing Contact

The billing contact is the third contact assigned to any registered domain name. The billing contact is the individual who will be contacted with regard to issues to do with billing your account. This contact could be the domain owner or the domain registrar.

It is highly recommended that you keep the billing contact details for your domain names up-to-date at all times.


Whois

Whois databases are the public databases containing information about each registered domain. There is a Whois database for each top-level domain, maintained by that TLD's registry.

The Whois databases can contain a variety of information, including name servers, registrars and details of domain registrants.

Whois databases can be used to look up the current owners and expiry dates of domain names, and can therefore be very useful for those who wish to register or purchase pre-owned domains.

  • VeriSign maintain a central registry WHOIS database for all .com & .net domains.
  • Nominet maintain a central registry WHOIS database for all UK domains.
  • EURid maintain the central registry WHOIS database for .eu domains.

Hosting Glossary

Find out more about hosting and its associated terminology.

Hosting

Web hosting is the provision of space on Internet servers for storing web pages, content and databases. These can then be accessed by others via the Internet. Web hosting is usually provided by internet service providers (ISPs) and specialist companies.

There are several kinds of web hosting, including free hosting, shared hosting and dedicated hosting. Different hosting companies and packages will offer different features and services. You should choose a hosting package based on the type of website you wish to create.


Hosting Provider

A hosting provider is a company that provides hosting (storage space) for many websites. They may offer any number of added features with their hosting packages. A good hosting company should offer you unlimited access to your website files, and should have their server online at least 99% of the time.


Name Servers

Name Servers (or Domain Name Servers) are the machines that perform the DNS function by providing the mapping of domain names to IP addresses.


Hosting Platform

A hosting platform is essentially the operating system and software which is installed on a hosting provider's servers. There are two main hosting platforms to choose from: Linux and Windows. Your choice of platform should be based on the functionality you require for your website.


Windows Hosting

Websites hosted on servers which use a Windows hosting platform can use Microsoft applications and functions, including ASP, ASP.NET and Microsoft SQL.

Hosting providers offering Windows hosting tend to be more expensive than those offering Linux hosting, because all the software being used is proprietary.


Linux Hosting

Websites hosted on servers which use a Linux platform can use Linux-based software and applications such as MySQL.

Hosting providers offering Linux hosting tend to be less expensive than those offering Windows hosting, because all the software being used is open source (and therefore free to install).


Dedicated Hosting

Dedicated hosting provides a client with their own hosting server for their website instead of having to share a server with other sites. The benefit of using dedicated hosting is that your website performance will not be affected by any other high traffic websites on the server, which would otherwise have been sharing your server's resources. However, because of the large quantity of resources assigned to your hosting needs, your provider will charge more for dedicated hosting than for shared hosting.


Shared Hosting

Shared hosting packages give the customer hosting space on a server which is shared by several other websites. Shared hosting is much less expensive than dedicated hosting (where the website has a server dedicated to it), but it is usually not sufficient for websites that cope with high traffic levels. These sites need a dedicated web server, either provided by a web hosting service or maintained in-house.


Free Hosting

Free web hosting is provided by several, including AngelFire and Bravenet. There is no monetary cost for using free web hosting, but free hosting providers tend to place advertisements on web pages hosted on their servers, and the service is usually extremely limited. A low-cost alternative to free web hosting is shared hosting.


Colocation

Website owners who have their own hosting equipment may wish to locate that equipment at a hosting provider's data centre, where their servers can enjoy temperature-controlled server rooms and improved security. This is called co-location. Typically, the hosting company is responsible for power and internet connection, while the customer continues to administrate the software and data on the server.


FrontPage Hosting

FrontPage hosting supports features of websites which are built using Microsoft FrontPage. For some FrontPage websites to function correctly, FrontPage Extensions are required. These are a set of server-side scripts and programs which enable FrontPage-built websites to use special components (called Web Bots). FrontPage extensions can be installed for Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) and on other Windows (usually Windows NT) and Linux web servers.


Host Headers

Host headers let you use the same IP address for multiple web domains, increasing the productivity of your web hosting allocation and reducing cost.


TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a protocol for communication between computers. It is used as a standard for transmitting data over networks, and as a basis for standard internet protocols.


FTP

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the language used for file transfer from computer to computer across the Internet. FTP servers can be secure or anonymous. The software used to transfer data via FTP is called an FTP client.


FTP Login

For secure FTP servers, login details are required to transfer data. FTP login details consist of a server name, user name and password. Logging in to your hosting account with this information via an FTP client will allow you to upload and edit files to your FTP server.

  • Server Name: ftp.yourdomain.com
  • User Name: yourdomain
  • Password: ********

FTP Client

An FTP client is a piece of software which allows you to log in to your FTP server to upload and edit files.

Domainmonster.com recommends the following FTP clients:


Anonymous FTP

Anonymous FTP servers can be accessed using anonymous login where the password is an email address. These FTP servers are not secure because they can be accessed by any Internet user.


Data Transfer / Bandwidth

Your data transfer quota is the amount of data per month that can be transferred to and from your hosting provider's server via your website. If you exceed this quota, you may incur excess usage charges. Email is not usually included in this quota.

Data transfer is often referred to as bandwidth, but this is not technically correct; bandwidth is actually the rate at which data can be transferred between your website and its visitors.


Backbone

The internet backbone was originally the central network that linked all the parts of the Internet together. The term is now used as a loose term to describe the "core" of the current Internet. This is because the Internet is to a great extent decentralised because of the proliferation of internet service providers (ISPs) and hosting providers.


HTTP

HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the Internet protocol which performs the request and retrieve functions of a server. It is commonly seen at the beginning of web addresses (e.g. http://www.domainmonster.com/). For secure pages, secure HTTP or HTTPS is used.


IP Address

Each machine which is connected to the internet has an IP or Internet Protocol address. This includes home computers and servers. IP addresses consist of four integers between 0 and 255, separated by dots.

  • Example IP Address: 123.45.67.890

IMAP

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is expected to gradually replace POP3 as the main protocol used by email clients to communicate with mail servers. IMAP allows the user not only to retrieve emails, but also to manipulate them while they are still held on the server. This means that the user can choose not to download emails in which they have no interest, such as spam. They can also change the status of emails and manage multiple mailboxes without downloading any emails.


Home Page

The phrase home page refers to two things: the page that your browser loads automatically when you start it up; or the front page of a website.

Domainmonster.com offers a custom home page service for its domain registrants called My Home Page.


ASCII

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is a world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all upper- and lower-case Latin (English) letters, punctuation, digits and symbols. There are 128 standard ASCII codes, each of which is represented by a seven-digit binary number (0000000-1111111).


Applet

An applet is a small Java program which can be embedded into the HTML of a web page.

Applets differ from fully-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files or serial devices (modems, printers etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The common rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.


ActiveX

ActiveX is a Microsoft technology used on the Internet to make interactive web pages that look and behave like computer programs, rather than static pages. ActiveX controls may be used with Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser to interact with web pages. ActiveX controls provide functions similar to Java applications.

More information on ActiveX can be found on the Microsoft website.


SQL Server

A SQL Server is a common term used to refer to Microsoft's database server, SQL Server. SQL uses the standards based, Structured English QUEry Language (SEQUEL) to accept requests for data access.


Java Script

Java script is a type of programming which can add interactivity and function to a website. Some examples include drop down menus navigation button effects, interactive forms, slide shows, and pop open windows. There are many applications available to enrich a website.


Java

Java is a simple platform-independent object-oriented programming language used for writing applets that are downloaded from the World Wide Web by a client and run on the client's machine.


IIS

Internet Information Services (IIS) is a powerful Web server application that provides a highly reliable, manageable, and scalable Web application infrastructure for all versions of Windows Server 2003.


Blogs

Weblogs or 'Blogs' are personal websites consisting of regularly updated entries displayed in reverse chronological order. They read like a diary or journal, but with the most recent entry at the top.


Forum

A forum is an online discussion group, where participants with common interests can exchange open messages.


Sub-Domain

A subdomain is a domain which appears to the left of your registered domain name. For example, in the URL faq.domainmonster.com, faq is a subdomain. Subdomains are used to divide websites into different sections. Because A-records can be used to point different subdomains of the same domain name to different IP addresses, subdomains can be useful if different parts of your website are hosted on different servers.


Firewall

A firewall is a hardware or software solution to enforce security policies. In the physical security analogy, a firewall is equivalent to a door lock on a perimeter door or on a door to a room inside of the building - it permits only authorized users such as those with a key or access card to enter. A firewall has built-in filters that can disallow unauthorised or potentially dangerous material from entering the system. It also logs attempted intrusions.


HTTPS

A TCP/IP protocol that is used by World Wide Web servers and Web browsers to transfer and display hypermedia documents securely across the Internet.


Secure Certificate

A secure certificate is a document that's used to certify that a user or organisation is who they say they are. They contain information about who it belongs to, who it was issued by, expiry date and information that can be used to check out the contents of the certificate. It is as an important part of the SSL system for establishing secure connections.


Encryption

Any procedure used in cryptography to convert plaintext into ciphertext in order to prevent anyone except the intended recipient from reading that data. There are many types of data encryption and they are the basis of network security. Common types include Data Encryption Standard and Public-Key encryption (PGP).


SSL

The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a commonly-used protocol for managing the security of a message transmission over the Internet.


Data Protection

Data Protection is when a company complies with internationally recognised data protection standards with respect to all transferred personal data from users or members.


Copyright

The law gives the creators of literary, dramatic, musical, artistic works, sound recordings, broadcasts, films and typographical arrangement of published editions, rights to control the ways in which their material may be used.

The rights cover; broadcast and public performance, copying, adapting, issuing, renting and lending copies to the public.

In many cases, the creator will also have the right to be identified as the author and to object to distortions of his work.

International conventions give protection in most countries, subject to national laws.


Analytics

Analytics Data helps companies track business trends. Analytics comprises of programming that analyses data about a companies business activities and/or customer information, presenting it in a format that show visitor number trends and other vital information that used correctly can help to improve your site performance.


Log File

A log file is a text file maintained on a server showing where all files accessed are stored. Log file analysis reveals the visitors to your site, where they came from, and which queries were used to access your site.


Page View

Also known as page impression or simply an impression, is when a webpage is presented to a website visitor.


Hit

A hit means a single request from a web browser for a single item on a web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 hits would occur at the server: one for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3 graphics.


Email Glossary

Find out more about email and some of the terminology associated with mail.

Email Address

An email address identifies a location to which email messages can be delivered. Email addresses are in the following format:

  • support@domainmonster.com

The first part of the email address (before the @ symbol) is the local-part of the email address. The second part (after the @ symbol) is the domain-part of the email address.


BCC

A Blind Carbon Copy (BCC or Bcc) recipient is a recipient of an email message whose email addressis not shown in the email header.

This is in contrast to the To and Carbon Copy (CC or Cc) recipients, whose email addresses are displayed in the respective header lines. Every recipient of the message can see all the To and Cc recipients, but cannot see whether there were Bcc recipients, or who they were.


Email Header

The email header is the first part of an email message which contains meta-data such as the origin and destination email addresses, and the subject of the email. It may also contain the path the email has taken, or the email's priority settings.


Email Body

The body of an email message is the main portion thereof, and contains the actual content of the email, such as text or images. This is as opposed to the email header, which contains meta-data.

In the SMTP standard, the body is the whole email message. In this case, the header contains only information that the mail servers require to deliver the message.


Email Subject

The email subject is a short summary of its contents. Email clients and Webmail applications usually display the subject line alongside the sender when the Inbox is viewed.


Email Attachment

An email attachment is a file which is sent attached to an email message. Attachments could be text documents, PDFs, images, music files etc. Attachments are usually encoded using the MIME standard before sending, and are decoded when they reach the recipient. Email attachments can sometimes contain harmful software such as viruses or worms.


Email Client

An email client is a program used to create, read, send and receive email messages. Email clients work by interacting with mail servers. Email clients can be used with POP3 email accounts, but not all Webmail accounts support POP3 access.

Popular email clients include Outlook and Mac Mail.


Opt-In

An opt-in email marketing list is a list of marketing email recipients who have requested to be contacted in this way. If a customer asks for a specific piece of information, they are sent that information and nothing more; in order for them to continue receiving marketing emails, they must give their explicit permission.


Opt-Out

Opt-out email marketing assumes permission to send marketing messages unless recipients explicitly say that they do not wish to receive the messages. Those who send spam work on this dubious premise. Opt-in email marketing, where messages are only sent to those who have given explicit permission, is far more effective as well as being more ethical.


POP

Post Office Protocol (POP) is a protocol for retrieving email messages from a mail server. Incoming messages are stored in the mail server until the user logs in via an email client and downloads the messages to their computer. The current version of the protocol is POP3.

Domainmonster.com POP3 mailboxes can be accessed via Webmail or using an email client.


SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the protocol by which mail servers send and receive emails over a network. POP3 is then used by the recipient to retrieve the emails using an email client.


Mail server

A mail server is a computer server which handles email traffic - that is, emails being sent and received across a network. Email servers are run by internet service providers (ISPs), and email or Webmail providers such as Microsoft (for Hotmail) and Google (for Google Mail). The emails are sent between mail servers using a protocol called SMTP.

Users do not usually interact directly with mail servers; instead, they send and receive emails using an email client, which talks to the mail servers to which it is assigned. This is done using a protocol called POP3.

If you're using a POP3 mailbox on the Domainmonster.com network, your incoming and outgoing mail servers will be the following:

  • Incoming POP3 Mail Server: mail.yourdomain.tld
  • Outgoing SMTP Mail Server: mail.yourdomain.tld

Mail Relay

Open email relay systems were used in the 1990s before the number of email recipients grew very large. In these systems, emails were passed from computer to computer until they reached the intended recipient. The ease of intercepting these messages, and the rapid growth of the Internet, introduced a need for more secure and efficient ways of delivering emails.


WebMail

Webmail accounts are email accounts which are accessed via a website, using a web browser. Typically, the user logs into their mailbox from a secure login page; they can then compose, read, send and receive emails from within the Webmail interface.

In the past, most Webmail services have not allowed users to download their emails to their own computer; instead, they could only be stored and accessed on the mail server. However, nowadays, many Webmail providers are offering POP3 access, so that email users can use an email client to send and receive emails. Some of these services are more limited than others.

Emails sent to Domainmonster.com's versatile POP3 mailboxes can be accessed via Webmail or by using an email client. To access your emails via Webmail, type in your domain preceded by the subdomain mail (e.g. mail.yourdomain.com - do not type www. before the URL, as this will not work) and log in to your mailbox using your email username (if your email address is you@yourdomain.com, your username is you) and password.


Mime

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is a standard for encoding email attachments so that they can be sent over the Internet.


Recipient

The person for whom an email message is intended.


Spam

Email spam, or junk mail, is a broad term for any unsolicited email. Most spam schemes involve the same email being sent to thousands of recipients; for this reason, it is sometimes called unsolicited bulk email (UBE). Billions of spam emails are sent every day.

Spam may contain attachments which harbour viruses or worms. Spamming is also a very cheap way of advertising, and often niche products such as prescription pharmaceuticals are advertised. Spam may also contain fraudulent material which is designed to trick the recipient into giving away personal details such as passwords or credit card numbers. The practice of sending such mail is known as phishing.

The sending of spam is prohibited in the terms of service of internet service providers (ISPs). Spamming is also illegal in some parts of the world, but tracking down those who are responsible for sending spam email is extremely difficult, as they often hijack others' computers and servers, using malware programs called bots, in order to send their messages. These hijacked computers are called zombies, and about 80% of spam is sent through them. Spam is a global problem, and puts a great strain on the electronic resources of large businesses in particular.

The problem of an inbox clogged with spam can be dealt with, at least in part, by various software measures, including the many kinds of spam filters, and black and white lists (sometimes called allow and deny lists). It is also possible to protect your email address from being added to spammers' lists, by avoiding posting it in its full form on the Internet, and by avoiding opening or responding to spam emails.


Bayesian Statistical Analysis

Bayesian statistical analysis is a method of spam filtering, whereby algorithms identify and quantify the possibility that an email message is spam. The user trains a Bayesian filter by marking emails as spam, which the filter analyses and uses to alter its behaviour. It will then mark emails as spam which contain spammy words, and will allow emails which contain terms associated with personal emails. For example, the words Viagra and refinance are common in unsolicited emails, but words such as the names of friends and family are more common in personal emails.

The benefit of Bayesian filtering is that it can be tailored to the particular user's purposes. For example, they may have subscribed to a newsletter which other spam filters mark as spam, but because the user decides what to mark as spam and what to accept, the Bayesian filter can be trained not to treat the newsletter as junk mail.

Spammers attempt to dodge Bayesian filters by using alternative characters or spacing so that the strings marked as dangerous by the filter do not appear in their emails. For example, they may write refinance as r3fin4nce. They might also add random, innocuous words to the content of their emails, in an attempt to slip past Bayesian filters.


Heuristics Rules-Based Analysis

Heuristic analysis is a system of spam filtering and virus protection whereby thousands of proprietary rules of thumb which describe the characteristics of spam or viruses are used to assess incoming emails and attachments. The rules are written by threat technicians, and are updated as new spamming methods are identified.

The benefit of this style of filtering is that, unlike Bayesian filtering, it can identify spam and viruses of types that the user has not encountered before. In a sense, it is a more intelligent form of filtering. However, it can be inaccurate and sometimes results in a high proportion of false negatives (non-spam emails being marked as spam).


Distributed Checksum Clearinghouses

Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse (DCC) is a spam filtering system which works on the principle that most spam emails have been sent to many recipients, meaning that if one user marks an email as spam, other mail servers can be warned about this message and automatically mark it as spam when it arrives in the inboxes of other users.


Black and White Lists

A blacklist, sometimes called a deny list, is a list of email addresses, websites or IP addresses, mail from which the user has specified should be blocked or marked as spam. This can be useful if an individual is being harassed or bothered by a particular individual. However, because of the ease of acquiring free email addresses, and spammers' techniques for creating zombie computers and spoofing the sender addresses of their emails, blacklists are not really effective against most spam.

A whitelist, sometimes called an allow list, is a list of email addresses, websites or IP addresses, mail from which the user has specified should be allowed. If a user sets their email account to accept only emails from whitelisted senders, this is extremely effective against spam, because no unknown senders' emails will arrive in the inbox. However, for most users, this is not a viable option, because they will often need to accept emails from unknown contacts, such as registration emails for websites, or emails from new contacts.


HTML Shield Technology

HTML Shield Technology reduces the on-going influx of spam by blocking web beacons and bugs. These are pieces of HTML included in spam messages, which are used by spammers to monitor the reading of emails, and to thereby identify active mailboxes. Email addresses which are identified as active are subsequently likely to be flooded with spam, so HTML Shield Technology is used to prevent these pieces of code from running when an email is opened.


Allow List

An allow list, sometimes known as a whitelist, is a list of email addresses, mail from which the user has specified should be permitted to enter the inbox, rather than being marked as spam. Emails from addresses on an allow list will enter the inbox in spite of any contradictory spam filter settings, unless they contain a virus.


Deny Delivery

Deny Delivery is an email setting which causes messages that are suspected of being spam, or of containing a virus, attachment or HTML, to be refused.


Deny List

A deny list, sometimes known as a blacklist, is a list of email addresses or domain names, mail from which the user has specified should be marked as spam or refused.


Junk Mail

Junk mail is another name for spam, and refers to unsolicited emails.


Tag Subject

Tag Subject, also known as the Prepend Spam setting, is an email setting which causes a tag, such as the word SPAM, to be inserted into the beginning of the subject line of emails which are suspected of being spam. This warns the user of the possibly dangerous nature of the email, and also allows them to sort the emails automatically into their junk mail folder if they so desire.


Prepend Spam

Prepend Spam is another name for the Tag Subject email setting.


Virus

A virus is a self-replicating program, which spreads by inserting copies of itself into other programs or documents. Viruses are designed for all sorts of purposes: they can just cause disruption or irritation to the user of the infected computer, but some have more sinister functions, such as allowing the creator to access personal details on the victim's computer, destroying essential system files, or creating a zombie computer from which to send spam. Virus comes under the broad umbrella of malware, which is a term for all sorts of undesirable software which may be installed on a user's computer without their permission.

Viruses can be delivered via email attachments, and are sometimes included in the attachments of spam emails. However, even emails from trusted email addresses could contain viruses, as some viruses are designed to automatically resend themselves to all the contacts in a user's address book.

The problem of virus attacks via email can be combated by using virus scanning settings, as well as by avoiding opening attachments which are not expected, even from trusted email addresses.


Worm

Similar to viruses, worms are self-replicating computer programs. However, unlike viruses, they do not attach themselves to other, legitimate computer programs or documents in order to function; they are self-contained and do not require any other programs to propagate. Worms are often designed to exploit the file transmission capabilities of their host computers.

Like viruses, worms can be delivered via email attachments, especially those attached to spam, but also from trusted email addresses.

The problem of worm attacks via email can be combated by using worm scanning settings, as well as by avoiding opening attachments which are not expected, even from trusted email addresses.


Phishing

Phishing refers to a whole host of techniques that are used by online fraudsters to try to gain access to victims' personal information such as login or credit card details. Email phishing is the technique of sending fraudulent emails which mimic the official emails of a trusted source, such as eBay or PayPal, and which ask the user for their password, payment details or bank account information.

The user may be asked to fill in a form embedded in the email itself, or to respond to the email with the requested details; they may also be encouraged to click a link which takes them to a fraudulent (phishing) website, which will usually have a domain that looks very similar to the official website's domain, and be asked to submit their details there.

Phishing filters can help to deal with the problem of these emails. In addition, you should report any phishing emails you receive to the company who is being mimicked. You should also avoid clicking on links in emails in order to log in to your shopping or bank accounts online; instead, you should navigate to the login page to which you are accustomed via your web browser.

If you are not sure of the origin of any official-looking email you receive, you should ask the company from whom the email claims to originate whether they are responsible for the email.


Quarantine

To be effective, email filtering must keep harmful email out of inboxes, and avoid false positives (legitimate emails that are marked as spam). Our Spam & Virus Protection product consistently achieves industry-leading low false positive rates using "intelligent", customizable spam filtering technology.

Email filtering technology must be comprehensive due to the growing complexity of spam and the individuality of valuable email. For example, you might view a travel newsletter as legitimate, whereas your friend or colleague might think it is spam.

  • Quarantine process - Based the guidelines established by you or your company, our service will block spam and viruses, and filter content, attachments, and other email threats. Once filtered, the suspect messages are held safely in quarantine on your behalf. You, your corporate IT department, and/or your employees can use the quarantine to further customize the filtering process.
  • Setting rules around legitimate messages - Extending the ability for people to manage their quarantine helps reduce the amount of time IT managers spend dealing with spam. It also allows individuals to customize or "condition" their own message quarantine and ensures emails they view as legitimate are not quarantined.
  • We send a Spam Quarantine Report to your inbox, based upon your pre-established settings. This allows you to review the messages that have been identified as spam, and provides the opportunity to further define the quarantine rules to meet your specific needs. Simply and quickly delete, forward, always allow, or always deny the messages and senders contained in the report.
  • Keeping spam sensitivity rates high, false positives low - The ability to set highly specific rules for the quarantine enables you to keep spam sensitivity rates high, while keeping false positives extremely low. By spending a few minutes during the first week of service on reviewing and conditioning your quarantines, you can be confident that your policies will be enforced, but that email communication remains optimized.

Virus and Worm Scanning

As new viruses and worms are constantly being developed, protection against these threats becomes increasingly complex, and increasingly important. At the height of their outbreaks, one in seven emails contained the SoBig.F virus; one in 30 emails contained the SirCam virus; and one in 24 emails contained the Love Bug virus.

The latest sophisticated, blended virus attacks spread infected files, often without the knowledge of the victimised user. They automatically use a combination of email, network shares, chat programs and peer-to-peer file-sharing networks, to move rapidly through the Internet.

The best email defence system is one that stays one step ahead of the next attack. Emails are scanned for viruses before they enter the network, using our sophisticated anti-virus technology. Virus updates are proactively performed every five minutes, which greatly reduces the risk of an outbreak or infection.

With the Domainmonster.com Virus & Spam Protection product, emails suspected of containing viruses or worms are automatically moved to quarantine, according to your preferences. This system keeps you safe, while maintaining an industry-leading low for false positives (emails incorrectly marked as dangerous).


Multi-layer Spam Filtering

As spammers become more sophisticated, so too must spam filtering technology. The spam filtering included with the Domainmonster.com Spam & Virus Protection product uses five different kinds of filtering to ensure that more than 98% of unwanted or dangerous emails are quarantined, whilst maintaining an industry-leading low for false positives (emails incorrectly marked as spam or dangerous). This system is called a Stacked Classification Framework. The five filters we use are:

  • Bayesian Statistical Analysis - a filter which you train for your specific needs to mark emails as spam which contain certain terms, and to allow others which contain trusted words.
  • Heuristics Rule-Based Analysis - incoming emails are tested against up-to-the-minute spam rules of thumb which are created by experts on a daily basis, to root out even the newest types of spam.
  • Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse (DCC) - your emails are each checked against a list to see if anyone else has marked them as spam.
  • Black and White Lists - you can personally specify lists of trusted and prohibitedemail addresses, domains and IP addresses, so that the emails you want will always get through, whilst any harassing emails will be left at the door.
  • HTML Shield Technology - spammers' HTML code which tells the spammer that your mailbox is active, thus making you a more attractive spam target, is prevented from running.

Our Spam & Virus Protection product also protects you against phishing emails.

Each of these five filters dynamically calculates the likelihood of each message you receive being spam. Through an aggregation and analysis of these spam-likelihood scores, we offer an extremely effective spam blocking solution.

All suspect emails are moved into a quarantined area. Emails identified as spam are stored in this external area. You determine whether to remove, release, or even safely view the suspect messages. All quarantined content is accessible through your spam quarantine report.


Content and Attachment Filtering

Unwanted and malicious content - whether within thebody of an email or as an attachment - represents one of the greatest dangers that email passes to businesses and individuals alike. Unfortunately, unscrupulous individuals can easily use email to distribute inappropriate content, such as racially insensitive material, offensive jokes, and company-sensitive information.

Attachments can be even more threatening. Pornographic images and videos, viruses and worms, and other unwanted attachments, can reduce productivity and expose organizations to legal liability. Additionally, large attachments can devour bandwidth, and significantly delay email traffic.

Protect yourself or your business. The Domainmonster.com Spam & Virus Protection product reduces liability and risk by automatically identifying, quarantining and blocking unwanted and malicious content and attachments, before they enter your network.

With our product, all emails are automatically filtered. Any messages that contain inappropriate content or attachments are quarantined before they enter your inbox. You can use the pre-defined content filtering rules, or configure your own. There are no limits to the number of filters you can create. Content can be filtered by keywords or phrases. Attachments can be filtered by type and size. Custom attachment types can also be added.


Administrative Control

The Domainmonster.com Spam & Virus Protection product provides very high levels of essential administrative control. Our control centre allows administrators to set up a centralized email threat management policy platform. Administrators have one interface for managing all email threats, and protection and security settings. You can easily configure and control your email protection and security.

Administrators are able to:

  • Configure policies for how to handle viruses, spam, unwanted attachments and unwanted content.
  • Create customised message rule lists which include allow and deny lists (for message senders), as well as an "Exempt Users" list (for users and recipients).
  • Manage quarantine settings for the domain's spam, virus and worm, and content and attachment quarantines.
  • View summary reports which summarise email threat activity, the number of messages processed, spam levels, etc.
  • Troubleshoot various issues, using user activity information, an audit trail of actions taken, a summary of released messages by user, etc.
  • Set user permissions and settings for password creation, aliases, spam quarantine reporting, etc.

You may choose to allow the users of your domain name to be able to allow a level of administrative access too. If you choose to do this, they will see their personal quarantine, allow and deny lists and setup options, but will not have access to the domain-wide administrative functions.


*price exc. VAT & based on maximum bulk discounts. †subject to registry imposed fees. Telephone orders charged small premium.
Please refer to domains price list.
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